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« Development is the missing link between genotype and phenotype, a place too often occupied by metaphors in the past … But a strong emphasis on the genome means that environmental influence is systematically ignored. If you begin with DNA and view development as « hard-wired, » you overlook the flexible phenotype and the causes of its variation that are the mainsprings of adaptive evolution. » (Mary Jane West-Eberhard, 2003: 89-90)
“Genes, unlike gods, are conditional. They are exquisitely good at simple if-then logic: if in a certain environment, then develop in a certain way… So here is the first moral of the tale: Don’t be frightened of genes. They are not gods; they are cogs. (Matt Ridley, 2003: 250)
In his book The Triple Helix, Richard Lewontin told the story of the molecular biologist and Nobel laureate Sydney…
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